In a human rights context, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people face both common and distinct challenges. Intersex people (those born with atypical sex characteristics) suffer some of the same kinds of human rights violations as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, people. They also face institutional violence within healthcare systems, with lifelong consequences to their physical and psychological health.

All States are obligated under International human rights law to promote and protect the human rights of all persons without discrimination. Yet in many countries, laws against cross dressing are used to punish transgender people on the basis of their gender identity and expression. Additionally, in some countries, discriminatory laws criminalize private, consensual same-sex relationships.

As a result, LGBTQ+ individuals are exposed to the risk of arrest, blackmail, extortion, stigma, discrimination, violence and, in at least five countries, the death penalty.




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